Alcohols, phenols and ethers are the basic compounds for the formation of detergents, antiseptics and fragrances, respectively.
You have learnt that substitution of one or more hydrogen atom(s) from a hydrocarbon by another atom or a group of atoms result in the formation of an entirely new compound having altogether different properties and applications. Alcohols and phenols are formed when a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon, aliphatic and aromatic respectively, is replaced by –OH group. These classes of compounds find wide applications in industry as well as in day-to-day life. For instance, have you ever noticed that ordinary spirit used for polishing wooden furniture is chiefly a compound containing hydroxyl group, ethanol. The sugar we eat, the cotton used for fabrics, the paper we use for writing, are all made up of compounds containing –OH groups. Just think of life without paper; no note-books, books, news- papers, currency notes, cheques, certificates, etc. The magazines carrying beautiful photographs and interesting stories would disappear from our life. It would have been really a different world.
An alcohol contains one or more hydroxyl (OH) group(s) directly attached to carbon atom(s), of an aliphatic system (CH3OH) while a phenol contains –OH group(s) directly attached to carbon atom(s) of an aromatic system (C6H5OH).
The subsitution of a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon by an alkoxy or aryloxy group (R–O/Ar–O) yields another class of compounds known as ‘ethers’, for example, CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether). You may also visualise ethers as compounds formed by substituting the hydrogen atom of hydroxyl group of an alcohol or phenol by an alkyl or aryl group.
In this unit, we shall discuss the chemistry of three classes of compounds, namely — alcohols, phenols and ethers.
The classification of compounds makes their study systematic and hence simpler. Therefore, let us first learn how are alcohols, phenols and ethers classified?
11.1.1 Mono, Di, Tri or Polyhydric Compounds
Alcohols and phenols may be classified as mono–, di–, tri- or polyhydric compounds depending on whether they contain one, two, three or many hydroxyl groups respectively in their structures as given below:
Monohydric alcohols may be further classified according to the hybridisation of the carbon atom to which the hydroxyl group is attached.
(i) Compounds containing Csp3 − OH bond: In this class of alcohols, the –OH group is attached to an sp3 hybridised carbon atom of an alkyl group. They are further classified as follows:
Allylic and benzylic alcohols may be primary, secondary or tertiary.
(ii) Compounds containing Csp2 − OH bond: These alcohols contain —OH group bonded to a carbon-carbon double bond i.e., to a vinylic carbon or to an aryl carbon. These alcohols are also known as vinylic alcohols.
Ethers are classified as simple or symmetrical, if the alkyl or aryl groups attached to the oxygen atom are the same, and mixed or unsymmetrical, if the two groups are different. Diethyl ether, C2H5OC2H5, is a symmetrical ether whereas C2H5OCH3 and C2H5OC6H5 are unsymmetrical ethers.
11.1 Classify the following as primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols:
11.2 Identify allylic alcohols in the above examples.
(a) Alcohols: The common name of an alcohol is derived from the common name of the alkyl group and adding the word alcohol to it. For example, CH3OH is methyl alcohol.
According to IUPAC system (Unit 12, Class XI), the name of an alcohol is derived from the name of the alkane from which the alcohol is derived, by substituting ‘e’ of alkane with the suffix ‘ol’. The position of substituents are indicated by numerals. For this, the longest carbon chain (parent chain) is numbered starting at the end nearest to the hydroxyl group. The positions of the –OH group and other substituents are indicated by using the numbers of carbon atoms to which these are attached. For naming polyhydric alcohols, the ‘e’ of alkane is retained and the ending ‘ol’ is added. The number of –OH groups is indicated by adding the multiplicative prefix, di, tri, etc., before ‘ol’. The positions of –OH groups are indicated by appropriate locants e.g., HO–CH2–CH2–OH is named as ethane–1, 2-diol. Table 11.1 gives common and IUPAC names of a few alcohols as examples.
(b) Phenols: The simplest hydroxy derivative of benzene is phenol. It is its common name and also an accepted IUPAC name. As structure of phenol involves a benzene ring, in its substituted compounds the terms ortho (1,2- disubstituted), meta (1,3-disubstituted) and para (1,4-disubstituted) are often used in the common names.
(c) Ethers: Common names of ethers are derived from the names of alkyl/aryl groups written as separate words in alphabetical order and adding the word ‘ether’ at the end. For example, CH3OC2H5 is ethylmethyl ether. If both the alkyl groups are the same, the prefix ‘di’ is added before the alkyl group. For example, C2H5OC2H5 is diethyl ether.
According to IUPAC system of nomenclature, ethers are regarded as hydrocarbon derivatives in which a hydrogen atom is replaced by an –OR or –OAr group, where R and Ar represent alkyl and aryl groups, respectively. The larger (R) group is chosen as the parent hydrocarbon. The names of a few ethers are given as examples in Table 11.2.
11.3 Structure of Functional Groups
In alcohols, the oxygen of the –OH group is attached to carbon by a sigma (σ ) bond formed by the overlap of a sp3 hybridised orbital of carbon with a sp3 hybridised orbital of oxygen. Fig. 11.1 depicts structural aspects of methanol, phenol and methoxymethane.
The bond angle in alcohols is slightly less than the tetrahedral angle (109°-28′). It is due to the repulsion between the unshared electron pairs of oxygen. In phenols, the –OH group is attached to sp2 hybridised carbon of an aromatic ring. The carbon– oxygen bond length (136 pm) in phenol is slightly less than that in methanol. This is due to (i) partial double bond character on account of the conjugation of unshared electron pair of oxygen with the aromatic ring (Section 11.4.4) and (ii) sp2 hybridised state of carbon to which oxygen is attached.
In ethers, the four electron pairs, i.e., the two bond pairs and two lone pairs of electrons on oxygen are arranged approximately in a tetrahedral arrangement. The bond angle is slightly greater than the tetrahedral angle due to the repulsive interaction between the two bulky (–R) groups. The C–O bond length (141 pm) is almost the same as in alcohols.
11.4 Alcohols and Phenols
11.4.1 Preparation of Alcohols
Alcohols are prepared by the following methods:
1. From alkenes
(i) By acid catalysed hydration: Alkenes react with water in the presence of acid as catalyst to form alcohols. In case of unsymmetrical alkenes, the addition reaction takes place in accordance with Markovnikov’s rule (Unit 13, Class XI).
(ii) By hydroboration–oxidation: Diborane (BH3)2 reacts with alkenes to give trialkyl boranes as addition product. This is oxidised to alcohol by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide.
The addition of borane to the double bond takes place in such a manner that the boron atom gets attached to the sp2 carbon carrying greater number of hydrogen atoms. The alcohol so formed looks as if it has been formed by the addition of water to the alkene in a way opposite to the Markovnikov’s rule. In this reaction, alcohol is obtained in excellent yield.
2. From carbonyl compounds
(i) By reduction of aldehydes and ketones: Aldehydes and ketones are reduced to the corresponding alcohols by addition of hydrogen in the presence of catalysts (catalytic hydrogenation). The usual catalyst is a finely divided metal such as platinum, palladium or nickel. It is also prepared by treating aldehydes and ketones with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4). Aldehydes yield primary alcohols whereas ketones give secondary alcohols.
However, LiAlH4 is an expensive reagent, and therefore, used for preparing special chemicals only. Commercially, acids are reduced to alcohols by converting them to the esters (Section 11.4.4), followed by their reduction using hydrogen in the presence of catalyst (catalytic hydrogenation).
3. From Grignard reagents
Alcohols are produced by the reaction of Grignard reagents (Unit 10, Class XII) with aldehydes and ketones.
You will notice that the reaction produces a primary alcohol with methanal, a secondary alcohol with other aldehydes and tertiary alcohol with ketones.
Give the structures and IUPAC names of the products expected from the following reactions:
(a) Catalytic reduction of butanal.
(b) Hydration of propene in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid.
(c) Reaction of propanone with methylmagnesium bromide followed by hydrolysis.
11.4.2 Preparation of Phenols
Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, was first isolated in the early nineteenth century from coal tar. Nowadays, phenol is commercially produced synthetically. In the laboratory, phenols are prepared from benzene derivatives by any of the following methods:
2. From benzenesulphonic acid
Benzene is sulphonated with oleum and benzene sulphonic acid so formed is converted to sodium phenoxide on heating with molten sodium hydroxide. Acidification of the sodium salt gives phenol.
3. From diazonium salts
A diazonium salt is formed by treating an aromatic primary amine with nitrous acid (NaNO2 + HCl) at 273-278 K. Diazonium salts are hydrolysed to phenols by warming with water or by treating with dilute acids (Unit 13, Class XII).
4. From cumene
Phenol is manufactured from the hydrocarbon, cumene. Cumene (isopropylbenzene) is oxidised in the presence of air to cumene hydroperoxide. It is converted to phenol and acetone by treating it with dilute acid. Acetone, a by-product of this reaction, is also obtained in large quantities by this method.
11.4.3 Physical Properties
Alcohols and phenols consist of two parts, an alkyl/aryl group and a hydroxyl group. The properties of alcohols and phenols are chiefly due to the hydroxyl group. The nature of alkyl and aryl groups simply modify these properties.
The boiling points of alcohols and phenols increase with increase in the number of carbon atoms (increase in van der Waals forces). In alcohols, the boiling points decrease with increase of branching in carbon chain (because of decrease in van der Waals forces with decrease in surface area).
It is interesting to note that boiling points of alcohols and phenols are higher in comparison to other classes of compounds, namely hydrocarbons, ethers, haloalkanes and haloarenes of comparable molecular masses. For example, ethanol and propane have comparable molecular masses but their boiling points differ widely. The boiling point of methoxymethane is intermediate of the two boiling points.
The high boiling points of alcohols are mainly due to the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in them which is lacking in ethers and hydrocarbons.
Solubility of alcohols and phenols in water is due to their ability to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules as shown. The solubility decreases with increase in size of alkyl/aryl (hydro- phobic) groups. Several of the lower molecular mass alcohols are miscible with water in all proportions.
Example 11.4.4 Arrange the following sets of compounds in order of their increasing boiling points:
(a) Pentan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, methanol.
(b) Pentan-1-ol, n-butane, pentanal, ethoxyethane.
(a) Methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol.
(b) n-Butane, ethoxyethane, pentanal and pentan-1-ol.
11.4.4 Chemical Reactions
Alcohols are versatile compounds. They react both as nucleophiles and electrophiles. The bond between O–H is broken when alcohols react as nucleophiles.
(a) Reactions involving cleavage of O–H bond
1. Acidity of alcohols and phenols
(i) Reaction with metals: Alcohols and phenols react with active metals such as sodium, potassium and aluminium to yield corresponding alkoxides/phenoxides and hydrogen.
The above reactions show that alcohols and phenols are acidic in nature. In fact, alcohols and phenols are Brönsted acids i.e., they can donate a proton to a stronger base (B:).
(ii) Acidity of alcohols: The acidic character of alcohols is due to the polar nature of O–H bond. An electron-releasing group (–CH3, –C2H5) increases electron density on oxygen tending to decrease the polarity of O-H bond. This decreases the acid strength. For this reason, the acid strength of alcohols decreases in the following order:
This reaction shows that water is a better proton donor (i.e., stronger acid) than alcohol. Also, in the above reaction, we note that an alkoxide ion is a better proton acceptor than hydroxide ion, which suggests that alkoxides are stronger bases (sodium ethoxide is a stronger base than sodium hydroxide). Alcohols act as Bronsted bases as well. It is due to the presence of unshared electron pairs on oxygen, which makes them proton acceptors.
(iii) Acidity of phenols: The reactions of phenol with metals (e.g., sodium, aluminium) and sodium hydroxide indicate its acidic nature. The hydroxyl group, in phenol is directly attached to the sp2 hybridised carbon of benzene ring which acts as an electron withdrawing group. Due to this, the charge distribution in phenol molecule, as depicted in its resonance structures, causes the oxygen of –OH group to be positive.
The reaction of phenol with aqueous sodium hydroxide indicates that phenols are stronger acids than alcohols and water. Let us examine how a compound in which hydroxyl group attached to an aromatic ring is more acidic than the one in which hydroxyl group is attached to an alkyl group.
The ionisation of an alcohol and a phenol takes place as follows:
Due to the higher electronegativity of sp hybridised carbon of phenol to which –OH is attached, electron density decreases on oxygen. This increases the polarity of O–H bond and results in an increase in ionisation of phenols than that of alcohols. Now let us examine the stabilities of alkoxide and phenoxide ions. In alkoxide ion, the negative charge is localised on oxygen while in phenoxide ion, the charge is delocalised. The delocalisation of negative charge (structures I-V) makes phenoxide ion more stable and favours the ionisation of phenol. Although there is also charge delocalisation in phenol, its resonance structures have charge separation due to which the phenol molecule is less stable than phenoxide ion.
In substituted phenols, the presence of electron withdrawing groups such as nitro group, enhances the acidic strength of phenol. This effect is more pronounced when such a group is present at ortho and para positions. It is due to the effective delocalisation of negative charge in phenoxide ion. On the other hand, electron releasing groups, such as alkyl groups, in general, do not favour the formation of phenoxide ion resulting in decrease in acid strength. Cresols, for example, are less acidic than phenol.
From the above data, you will note that phenol is million times more acidic than ethanol.
Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their acid strength:
Propan-1-ol, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 3,5-dinitrophenol,phenol, 4-methylphenol.
Propan-1-ol, 4-methylphenol, phenol, 3-nitrophenol, 3,5-dinitrophenol,2,4, 6-trinitrophenol.
The reaction with carboxylic acid and acid anhydride is carried out in the presence of a small amount of concentrated sulphuric acid. The reaction is reversible, and therefore, water is removed as soon as it is formed. The reaction with acid chloride is carried out in the presence of a base (pyridine) so as to neutralise HCl which is formed during the reaction. It shifts the equilibrium to the right hand side. The introduction of acetyl (CH3CO) group in alcohols or phenols is known as acetylation. Acetylation of salicylic acid produces aspirin.
(b) Reactions involving cleavage of carbon – oxygen (C–O) bond in alcohols
The reactions involving cleavage of C–O bond take place only in alcohols. Phenols show this type of reaction only with zinc.
1. Reaction with hydrogen halides: Alcohols react with hydrogen halides to form alkyl halides (Refer Unit 10, Class XII).
ROH + HX → R–X + H2O
The difference in reactivity of three classes of alcohols with HCl distinguishes them from one another (Lucas test). Alcohols are soluble in Lucas reagent (conc. HCl and ZnCl2) while their halides are immiscible and produce turbidity in solution. In case of tertiary alcohols, turbidity is produced immediately as they form the halides easily. Primary alcohols do not produce turbidity at room temperature.
2. Reaction with phosphorus trihalides: Alcohols are converted to alkyl bromides by reaction with phosphorus tribromide (Refer Unit 10, Class XII).
3. Dehydration: Alcohols undergo dehydration (removal of a molecule of water) to form alkenes on treating with a protic acid e.g., concentrated H2SO4 or H3PO4, or catalysts such as anhydrous zinc chloride or alumina (Unit 13, Class XI).
Thus, the relative ease of dehydration of alcohols follows the following order:
Tertiary > Secondary > Primary
The mechanism of dehydration of ethanol involves the following steps:
The acid used in step 1 is released in step 3. To drive the equilibrium to the right, ethene is removed as it is formed.
Such a cleavage and formation of bonds occur in oxidation reactions. These are also known as dehydrogenation reactions as these involve loss of dihydrogen from an alcohol molecule. Depending on the oxidising agent used, a primary alcohol is oxidised to an aldehyde which in turn is oxidised to a carboxylic acid.
Strong oxidising agents such as acidified potassium permanganate are used for getting carboxylic acids from alcohols directly. CrO3 in anhydrous medium is used as the oxidising agent for the isolation of aldehydes.
Tertiary alcohols do not undergo oxidation reaction. Under strong reaction conditions such as strong oxidising agents (KMnO4) and elevated temperatures, cleavage of various C-C bonds takes place and a mixture of carboxylic acids containing lesser number of carbon atoms is formed.
When the vapours of a primary or a secondary alcohol are passed over heated copper at 573 K, dehydrogenation takes place and an aldehyde or a ketone is formed while tertiaryalcohols undergo dehydration.
Biological oxidation of methanol and ethanol in the body produces the corresponding aldehyde followed by the acid. At times the alcoholics, by mistake, drink ethanol, mixed with methanol also called denatured alcohol. In the body, methanol is oxidised first to methanal and then to methanoic acid, which may cause blindness and death. A methanol poisoned patient is treated by giving intravenous infusions of diluted ethanol. The enzyme responsible for oxidation of aldehyde (HCHO) to acid is swamped allowing time for kidneys to excrete methanol.
(c) Reactions of phenols
Following reactions are shown by phenols only.
1. Electrophilic aromatic substitution
In phenols, the reactions that take place on the aromatic ring are electrophilic substitution reactions (Unit 13, Class XI). The –OH group attached to the benzene ring activates it towards electrophilic substitution. Also, it directs the incoming group to ortho and para positions in the ring as these positions become electron rich due to the resonance effect caused by –OH group. The resonance structures are shown under acidity of phenols.
Common electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions taking place in phenol are as follows:
The ortho and para isomers can be separated by steam distillation. o-Nitrophenol is steam volatile due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding while p-nitrophenol is less volatile due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding which causes the association of molecules.
Nowadays picric acid is prepared by treating phenol first with concentrated sulphuric acid which converts it to phenol-2,4-disulphonic acid, and then with concentrated nitric acid to get 2,4,6-trinitrophenol. Can you write the equations of the reactions involved?
(ii) Halogenation: On treating phenol with bromine, different reaction products are formed under different experimental conditions.
(a) When the reaction is carried out in solvents of low polarity such as CHCl3 or CS2 and at low temperature, monobromophenols are formed.
The usual halogenation of benzene takes place in the presence of a Lewis acid, such as FeBr3 (Unit 10, Class XII), which polarises the halogen molecule. In case of phenol, the polarisation of bromine molecule takes place even in the absence of Lewis acid. It is due to the highly activating effect of –OH group attached to the benzene ring.
Example 11.5 Write the structures of the major products expected from the following reactions:
(a) Mononitration of 3-methylphenol
(b) Dinitration of 3-methylphenol
(c) Mononitration of phenyl methanoate.
The combined influence of –OH and –CH3 groups determine the position of the incoming group.
2. Kolbe’s reaction
Phenoxide ion generated by treating phenol with sodium hydroxide is even more reactive than phenol towards electrophilic aromatic substitution. Hence, it undergoes electrophilic substitution with carbon dioxide, a weak electrophile. Ortho hydroxybenzoic acid is formed as the main reaction product.
3. Reimer-Tiemann reaction
On treating phenol with chloroform in the presence of sodium hydroxide, a –CHO group is introduced at ortho position of benzene ring. This reaction is known as Reimer – Tiemann reaction.
The intermediate substituted benzal chloride is hydrolysed in the presence of alkali to produce salicylaldehyde
Oxidation of phenol with chromic acid produces a conjugated diketone known as benzoquinone. In the presence of air, phenols are slowly oxidised to dark coloured mixtures containing quinones.
11.6 Give structures of the products you would expect when each of the following alcohol reacts with (a) HCl –ZnCl2 (b) HBr and (c) SOCl2.
11.7 Predict the major product of acid catalysed dehydration of
(i) 1-methylcyclohexanol and
11.8 Ortho and para nitrophenols are more acidic than phenol. Draw the resonance structures of the corresponding phenoxide ions.
11.9 Write the equations involved in the following reactions:
(i) Reimer – Tiemann reaction
(ii) Kolbe’s reaction
11.5 Some Commercially Important Alcohols
Methanol and ethanol are among the two commercially important alcohols.
Methanol, CH3OH, also known as ‘wood spirit’, was produced by destructive distillation of wood. Today, most of the methanol is produced by catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide at high pressure and temperature and in the presence of ZnO – Cr2O3 catalyst.
Methanol is a colourless liquid and boils at 337 K. It is highly poisonous in nature. Ingestion of even small quantities of methanol can cause blindness and large quantities causes even death. Methanol is used as a solvent in paints, varnishes and chiefly for making formaldehyde.
Ethanol, C2H5OH, is obtained commercially by fermentation, the oldest method is from sugars. The sugar in molasses, sugarcane or fruits such as grapes is converted to glucose and fructose, (both of which have the formula C6H12O6), in the presence of an enzyme, invertase. Glucose and fructose undergo fermentation in the presence of another enzyme, zymase, which is found in yeast.
In wine making, grapes are the source of sugars and yeast. As grapes ripen, the quantity of sugar increases and yeast grows on the outer skin. When grapes are crushed, sugar and the enzyme come in contact and fermentation starts. Fermentation takes place in anaerobic conditions i.e. in absence of air. Carbon dioxide is released during fermentation.
The action of zymase is inhibited once the percentage of alcohol formed exceeds 14 percent. If air gets into fermentation mixture, the oxygen of air oxidises ethanol to ethanoic acid which in turn destroys the taste of alcoholic drinks.
Ethanol is a colourless liquid with boiling point 351 K. It is used as a solvent in paint industry and in the preparation of a number of carbon compounds. The commercial alcohol is made unfit for drinking by mixing in it some copper sulphate (to give it a colour) and pyridine (a foul smelling liquid). It is known as denaturation of alcohol.
Nowadays, large quantities of ethanol are obtained by hydration of ethene (Section 11.4).
11.6.1 Preparation of Ethers
1. By dehydration of alcohols
Alcohols undergo dehydration in the presence of protic acids (H2SO4, H3PO4). The formation of the reaction product, alkene or ether depends on the reaction conditions. For example, ethanol is dehydrated to ethene in the presence of sulphuric acid at 443 K. At 413 K, ethoxyethane is the main product.
Acidic dehydration of alcohols, to give an alkene is also associated with substitution reaction to give an ether.
The method is suitable for the preparation of ethers having primary alkyl groups only. The alkyl group should be unhindered and the temperature be kept low. Otherwise the reaction favours the formation of alkene. The reaction follows SN1 pathway when the alcohol is secondary or tertiary about which you will learn in higher classes. However, the dehydration of secondary and tertiary alcohols to give corresponding ethers is unsuccessful as elimination competes over substitution and as a consequence, alkenes are easily formed.
Can you explain why is bimolecular dehydration not appropriate for the preparation of ethyl methyl ether?
Better results are obtained if the alkyl halide is primary. In case of secondary and tertiary alkyl halides, elimination competes over substitution. If a tertiary alkyl halide is used, an alkene is the only reaction product and no ether is formed. For example, the reaction of CH3ONa with (CH3)3C–Br gives exclusively 2-methylpropene.
It is because alkoxides are not only nucleophiles but strong bases as well. They react with alkyl halides leading to elimination reactions.
(i) What would be the major product of this reaction ?
(ii) Write a suitable reaction for the preparation of t-butylethyl ether.
(i) The major product of the given reaction is 2-methylprop-1-ene. It is because sodium ethoxide is a strong nucleophile as well as a strong base. Thus elimination reaction predominates over substitution.
Phenols are also converted to ethers by this method. In this, phenol is used as the phenoxide moiety.
11.6.2 Physical Properties
The C-O bonds in ethers are polar and thus, ethers have a net dipole moment. The weak polarity of ethers do not appreciably affect their boiling points which are comparable to those of the alkanes of comparable molecular masses but are much lower than the boiling points of alcohols as shown in the following cases:
The large difference in boiling points of alcohols and ethers is due to the presence of hydrogen bonding in alcohols.
The miscibility of ethers with water resembles those of alcohols of the same molecular mass. Both ethoxyethane and butan-1-ol are miscible to almost the same extent i.e., 7.5 and 9 g per 100 mL water, respectively while pentane is essentially immiscible with water. Can you explain this observation ? This is due to the fact that just like alcohols, oxygen of ether can also form hydrogen bonds with water molecule as shown:
11.6.3 Chemical Reactions
1. Cleavage of C–O bond in ethers
Ethers are the least reactive of the functional groups. The cleavage of C-O bond in ethers takes place under drastic conditions with excess of hydrogen halides. The reaction of dialkyl ether gives two alkyl halide molecules.
R-O-R + HX &RARR; RX + R-OH
R-OH + HX &RARR; R-X + H2O
Ethers with two different alkyl groups are also cleaved in the same manner.
R-O-R’ + HX -> R- X + R’ -OH
The order of reactivity of hydrogen halides is as follows:
HI > HBr > HCl. The cleavage of ethers takes place with concentrated HI or HBr at high temperature.
The reaction of an ether with concentrated HI starts with protonation of ether molecule.
The reaction takes place with HBr or HI because these reagents are sufficiently acidic.
Iodide is a good nucleophile. It attacks the least substituted carbon of the oxonium ion formed in step 1 and displaces an alcohol molecule by SN2 mechanism. Thus, in the cleavage of mixed ethers with two different alkyl groups, the alcohol and alkyl iodide formed, depend on the nature of alkyl groups. When primary or secondary alkyl groups are present, it is the lower alkyl group that forms alkyl iodide (SN2 reaction).
When HI is in excess and the reaction is carried out at high temperature, ethanol reacts with another molecule of HI and is converted to ethyl iodide.
In case of anisole, methylphenyl oxonium ion, is formed by protonation of ether. The bond between O–CH3 is weaker than the bond between O–C6H5 because the carbon of phenyl 2 group is sp hybridised and there is a partial double bond character.
Therefore the attack by I ion breaks O–CH3 bond to form CH3I. Phenols do not react further to give halides because the sp2 hybridised carbon of phenol cannot undergo nucleophilic substitution reaction needed for conversion to the halide.
(i) Halogenation: Phenylalkyl ethers undergo usual halogenation in the benzene ring, e.g., anisole undergoes bromination with bromine in ethanoic acid even in the absence of iron (III) bromide catalyst. It is due to the activation of benzene ring by the methoxy group. Para isomer is obtained in 90% yield.
(ii) Friedel-Crafts reaction: Anisole undergoes Friedel-Crafts reaction, i.e., the alkyl and acyl groups are introduced at ortho and para positions by reaction with alkyl halide and acyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride (a Lewis acid) as catalyst.
11.10 Write the reactions of Williamson synthesis of 2-ethoxy-3-methylpentane starting from ethanol and 3-methylpentan-2-ol.
11.11 Which of the following is an appropriate set of reactants for the preparation of 1-methoxy-4-nitrobenzene and why?
Alcohols and phenols are classified (i) on the basis of the number of hydroxyl groups and (ii) according to the hybridisation of the carbon atom, sp3 or sp2 to which the –OH group is attached. Ethers are classified on the basis of groups attached to the oxygen atom.
Alcohols may be prepared (1) by hydration of alkenes (i) in presence of an acid and (ii) by hydroboration-oxidation reaction (2) from carbonyl compounds by (i) catalytic reduction and (ii) the action of Grignard reagents. Phenols may be prepared by (1) substitution of (i) halogen atom in haloarenes and (ii) sulphonic acid group in aryl sulphonic acids, by –OH group (2) by hydrolysis of diazonium salts and (3) industrially from cumene.
Alcohols are higher boiling than other classes of compounds, namely hydrocarbons, ethers and haloalkanes of comparable molecular masses. The ability of alcohols, phenols and ethers to form intermolecular hydrogen bonding with water makes them soluble in it.
Alcohols and phenols are acidic in nature. Electron withdrawing groups in phenol increase its acidic strength and electron releasing groups decrease it.
Alcohols undergo nucleophilic substitution with hydrogen halides to yield alkyl halides. Dehydration of alcohols gives alkenes. On oxidation, primary alcohols yield aldehydes with mild oxidising agents and carboxylic acids with strong oxidising agents while secondary alcohols yield ketones. Tertiary alcohols are resistant to oxidation.
The presence of –OH group in phenols activates the aromatic ring towards electrophilic substitution and directs the incoming group to ortho and para
positions due to resonance effect. Reimer-Tiemann reaction of phenol yields salicylaldehyde. In presence of sodium hydroxide, phenol generates phenoxide ion which is even more reactive than phenol. Thus, in alkaline medium, phenol undergoes Kolbe’s reaction.
Ethers may be prepared by (i) dehydration of alcohols and (ii) Williamson synthesis. The boiling points of ethers resemble those of alkanes while their
solubility is comparable to those of alcohols having same molecular mass. The C–O bond in ethers can be cleaved by hydrogen halides. In electrophilic
substitution, the alkoxy group activates the aromatic ring and directs the incoming group to ortho and para positions.
11.2 Write structures of the compounds whose IUPAC names are as follows:
(iii) 3,5-Dimethylhexane –1, 3, 5-triol
(iv) 2,3 – Diethylphenol
(v) 1 – Ethoxypropane
11.3 (i) Draw the structures of all isomeric alcohols of molecular formula C5H12O and give their IUPAC names.
(ii) Classify the isomers of alcohols in question
11.3 (i) as primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.
11.4 Explain why propanol has higher boiling point than that of the hydrocarbon, butane?
11.5 Alcohols are comparatively more soluble in water than hydrocarbons of comparable molecular masses. Explain this fact.
11.6 What is meant by hydroboration-oxidation reaction? Illustrate it with an example.
11.7 Give the structures and IUPAC names of monohydric phenols of molecular formula, C7H8O.
11.8 While separating a mixture of ortho and para nitrophenols by steam distillation, name the isomer which will be steam volatile. Give reason.
11.9 Give the equations of reactions for the preparation of phenol from cumene.
11.10 Write chemical reaction for the preparation of phenol from chlorobenzene.
11.11 Write the mechanism of hydration of ethene to yield ethanol.
11.12 You are given benzene, conc. H2SO4 and NaOH. Write the equations for the preparation of phenol using these reagents.
11.13 Show how will you synthesise:
(i) 1-phenylethanol from a suitable alkene.
(ii) cyclohexylmethanol using an alkyl halide by an SN2 reaction.
(iii) pentan-1-ol using a suitable alkyl halide?
11.14 Give two reactions that show the acidic nature of phenol. Compare acidity of phenol with that of ethanol.
11.15 Explain why is ortho nitrophenol more acidic than ortho methoxyphenol ?
11.16 Explain how does the –OH group attached to a carbon of benzene ring activate it towards electrophilic substitution?
11.17 Give equations of the following reactions:
(i) Oxidation of propan-1-ol with alkaline KMnO4 solution.
(ii) Bromine in CS2 with phenol.
(iii) Dilute HNO3 with phenol.
(iv) Treating phenol wih chloroform in presence of aqueous NaOH.
11.18 Explain the following with an example.
(i) Kolbe’s reaction.
(ii) Reimer -Tiemann reaction.
(iii) Williamson ether synthesis.
(iv) Unsymmetrical ether.
11.19 Write the mechanism of acid dehydration of ethanol to yield ethene.
11.20 How are the following conversions carried out?
(i) Propene → Propan-2-ol.
(ii) Benzyl chloride → Benzyl alcohol.
(iii) Ethyl magnesium chloride → Propan-1-ol.
(iv) Methyl magnesium bromide → 2-Methylpropan-2-ol.
11.21 Name the reagents used in the following reactions:
(i) Oxidation of a primary alcohol to carboxylic acid.
(ii) Oxidation of a primary alcohol to aldehyde.
(iii) Bromination of phenol to 2,4,6-tribromophenol.
(iv) Benzyl alcohol to benzoic acid.
(v) Dehydration of propan-2-ol to propene.
(vi) Butan-2-one to butan-2-ol.
11.22 Give reason for the higher boiling point of ethanol in comparison to methoxymethane.
11.24 Write the names of reagents and equations for the preparation of the following ethers by Williamson’s synthesis:
11.25 Illustrate with examples the limitations of Williamson synthesis for the preparation of certain types of ethers.
11.26 How is 1-propoxypropane synthesised from propan-1-ol? Write mechanism of this reaction.
11.27 Preparation of ethers by acid dehydration of secondary or tertiary alcohols is not a suitable method. Give reason.
11.28 Write the equation of the reaction of hydrogen iodide with:
(i) 1-propoxypropane (ii) methoxybenzene and (iii) benzyl ethyl ether.
11.29 Explain the fact that in aryl alkyl ethers (i) the alkoxy group activates the benzene ring towards electrophilic substitution and (ii) it directs the
incoming substituents to ortho and para positions in benzene ring.
11.30 Write the mechanism of the reaction of HI with methoxymethane.
11.31 Write equations of the following reactions:
(i) Friedel-Crafts reaction – alkylation of anisole.
(ii) Nitration of anisole.
(iii) Bromination of anisole in ethanoic acid medium.
(iv) Friedel-Craft’s acetylation of anisole.
11.33 When 3-methylbutan-2-ol is treated with HBr, the following reaction takes place:
Give a mechanism for this reaction.
(Hint : The secondary carbocation formed in step II rearranges to a more
stable tertiary carbocation by a hydride ion shift from 3rd carbon atom.
Answers to Some Intext Questions
11.1 Primary alcohols (i), (ii), (iii)
Secondary alcohols (iv) and (v)
Tertiary alcohols (vi)
11.2 Allylic alcohols (ii) and (vi)
11.3 (i) 3-Chloromethyl-2-isopropylpentan-1-ol
(ii) 2, 5-Dimethylhexane-1,3-diol
(ii) A Mixture of but-1-ene and but-2-ene. But-1-ene is the major product formed due to rearrangement to give secondary carbocation.
Some Useful Links
I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)
1. Monochlorination of toluene in sunlight followed by hydrolysis with aq. NaOH yields.
(iii) 2, 4-Dihydroxytoluene
(iv) Benzyl alcohol
2. How many alcohols with molecular formula C4H10O are chiral in nature?
(i) 1° > 2° > 3°
(ii) 1° < 2° > 3°
(iii) 3° > 2° > 1°
(iv) 3° > 1° > 2°
4. CH3CH2OH can be converted into CH3CHO by ______________.
(i) catalytic hydrogenation
(ii) treatment with LiAlH4
(iii) treatment with pyridinium chlorochromate
(iv) treatment with KMnO4
5. The process of converting alkyl halides into alcohols involves_____________.
(i) addition reaction
(ii) substitution reaction
(iii) dehydrohalogenation reaction
(iv) rearrangement reaction
(i) A, B, C, D
(ii) A, D
(iii) B, C
8. IUPAC name of m-cresol is ___________.
(iv) isopropylmethyl ether
10. Which of the following species can act as the strongest base?
11. Which of the following compounds will react with sodium hydroxide solution in water?
12. Phenol is less acidic than ______________.
13. Which of the following is most acidic?
(i) Benzyl alcohol
14. Mark the correct order of decreasing acid strength of the following compounds.
(i) e > d > b > a > c
(ii) b > d > a > c > e
(iii) d > e > c > b > a
(iv) e > d > c > b > a
15. Mark the correct increasing order of reactivity of the following compounds with HBr/HCl.
(i) a < b < c
(ii) b < a < c
(iii) b < c < a
(iv) c < b < a
16. Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of boiling point.
Propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, pentan-1-ol
(i) Propan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol
(ii) Propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, pentan-1-ol
(iii) Pentan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, butan-1-ol, propan-1-ol
(iv) Pentan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, propan-1-ol
II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)
Note : In the following questions two or more options may be correct.
17. Which of the following are used to convert RCHO into RCH2OH?
(iv) Reaction with RMgX followed by hydrolysis
18. Which of the following reactions will yield phenol?
19. Which of the following reagents can be used to oxidise primary alcohols to aldehydes?
(i) CrO3 in anhydrous medium.
(ii) KMnO4 in acidic medium.
(iii) Pyridinium chlorochromate.
(iv) Heat in the presence of Cu at 573K.
20. Phenol can be distinguished from ethanol by the reactions with _________.
(iii) Neutral FeCl3
(iv) All the above
21. Which of the following are benzylic alcohols?
III. Short Answer Type
22. What is the structure and IUPAC name of glycerol?
23. Write the IUPAC name of the following compounds.
24. Write the IUPAC name of the compound given below.
25. Name the factors responsible for the solubility of alcohols in water.
26. What is denatured alcohol?
27. Suggest a reagent for the following conversion.
28. Out of 2-chloroethanol and ethanol which is more acidic and why?
29. Suggest a reagent for conversion of ethanol to ethanal.
30. Suggest a reagent for conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid.
31. Out of o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol, which is more volatile? Explain.
32. Out of o-nitrophenol and o-cresol which is more acidic?
33. When phenol is treated with bromine water, white precipitate is obtained. Give the structure and the name of the compound formed.
34. Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of acidity and give a suitable explanation.
Phenol, o-nitrophenol, o-cresol
35. Alcohols react with active metals e.g. Na, K etc. to give corresponding alkoxides. Write down the decreasing order of reactivity of sodium metal towards primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.
36. What happens when benzene diazonium chloride is heated with water?
37. Arrange the following compounds in decreasing order of acidity.
38. Name the enzymes and write the reactions involved in the preparation of ethanol from sucrose by fermentation.
39. How can propan-2-one be converted into tert- butyl alcohol?
40. Write the structures of the isomers of alcohols with molecular formula C4H10O. Which of these exhibits optical activity?
41. Explain why is OH group in phenols more strongly held as compared to OH group in alcohols.
42. Explain why nucleophilic substitution reactions are not very common in phenols.
43. Preparation of alcohols from alkenes involves the electrophilic attack on alkene carbon atom. Explain its mechanism.
44. Explain why is nonpolar while R—O—R is polar.
45. Why is the reactivity of all the three classes of alcohols with conc. HCl and ZnCl2 (Lucas reagent) different?
46. Write steps to carry out the conversion of phenol to aspirin.
47. Nitration is an example of aromatic electrophilic substitution and its rate depends upon the group already present in the benzene ring. Out of benzene and phenol, which one is more easily nitrated and why?
48. In Kolbe’s reaction, instead of phenol, phenoxide ion is treated with carbon dioxide. Why?
49. Dipole moment of phenol is smaller than that of methanol. Why?
50. Ethers can be prepared by Williamson synthesis in which an alkyl halide is reacted with sodium alkoxide. Di-tert-butyl ether can’t be prepared by this method. Explain.
51. Why is the C—O—H bond angle in alcohols slightly less than the tetrahedral angle whereas the C—O—C bond angle in ether is slightly greater?
52. Explain why low molecular mass alcohols are soluble in water.
53. Explain why p-nitrophenol is more acidic than phenol.
54. Explain why alcohols and ethers of comparable molecular mass have different boiling points?
55. The carbon-oxygen bond in phenol is slightly stronger than that in methanol. Why?
56. Arrange water, ethanol and phenol in increasing order of acidity and give reason for your answer.
IV. Matching Type
Note : Match the items of Column I and Column II in the following questions.
57. Match the structures of the compounds given in Column I with the name of the compounds given in Column II.
58. Match the starting materials given in Column I with the products formed by these (Column II) in the reaction with HI.
59. Match the items of column I with items of column II.
|Column I||Column II|
|(i)||Antifreeze used in car engine||(a)||Neutral ferric chloride|
|(ii)||Solvent used in perfumes||(b)||Glycerol|
|(iii)||Starting material for picric acid||(c)||Methanol|
|(v)||Reagent used for detection of phenolic group||(e)||Ethleneglycol|
|(vi)||By product of soap industry used in cosmetics||(f)||Ethanol|
60. Match the items of column I with items of column II.
|Column I||Column II|
|(i)||Methanol||(a)||Conversion of phenol to o-hydroxysalicylic acid|
|(ii)||Kolbe’s reaction||(b)||Ethyl alcohol|
|(iii)||Williamson’s synthesis||(c)||Conversion of phenol to salicylaldehyde|
|(iv)||Conversion of 2° alcohol to ketone||(d)||Wood spirit|
|(v)||Reimer-Tiemann reaction||(e)||Heated copper at 573K|
|(vi)||Fermentation||(f)||Reaction of alkyl halide with sodium alkoxide|
V. Assertion and Reason Type
Note : In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.
(i) Assertion and reason both are correct and reason is correct explanation of assertion.
(ii) Assertion and reason both are wrong statements.
(iii) Assertion is correct statement but reason is wrong statement.
(iv) Assertion is wrong statement but reason is correct statement.
(v) Both assertion and reason are correct statements but reason is not correct explanation of assertion.
61. Assertion : Addition reaction of water to but-1-ene in acidic medium yields butan-1-ol
Reason : Addition of water in acidic medium proceeds through the formation of primary carbocation.
62. Assertion : p-nitrophenol is more acidic than phenol.
Reason : Nitro group helps in the stabilisation of the phenoxide ion by dispersal of negative charge due to resonance.
63. Assertion : IUPAC name of the compound is 2-Ethoxy-2-methylethane.
Reason : In IUPAC nomenclature, ether is regarded as hydrocarbon derivative in which a hydrogen atom is replaced by —OR or —OAr group [where R = alkyl group and Ar = aryl group]
64. Assertion : Bond angle in ethers is slightly less than the tetrahedral angle.
Reason : There is a repulsion between the two bulky (—R) groups.
65. Assertion : Boiling points of alcohols and ethers are high.
Reason : They can form intermolecular hydrogen-bonding.
66. Assertion : Like bromination of benzene, bromination of phenol is also carried out in the presence of Lewis acid.
Reason : Lewis acid polarises the bromine molecule.
67. Assertion : o-Nitrophenol is less soluble in water than the m- and p-isomers.
Reason : m- and p- Nitrophenols exist as associated molecules.
68. Assertion : Ethanol is a weaker acid than phenol.
Reason : Sodium ethoxide may be prepared by the reaction of ethanol with aqueous NaOH.
69. Assertion : Phenol forms 2, 4, 6 – tribromophenol on treatment with Br2 in carbon disulphide at 273K.
Reason : Bromine polarises in carbon disulphide.
70. Assertion : Phenols give o- and p-nitrophenol on nitration with conc. HNO3 and H2SO4 mixture.
Reason : —OH group in phenol is o–, p– directing.
VI. Long Answer Type
71. Write the mechanism of the reaction of HI with methoxybenzene.
72. (a) Name the starting material used in the industrial preparation of phenol.
(b) Write complete reaction for the bromination of phenol in aqueous and non aqueous medium.
(c) Explain why Lewis acid is not required in bromination of phenol?
73. How can phenol be converted to aspirin?
74. Explain a process in which a biocatalyst is used in industrial preparation of a compound known to you.
I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)
1. (iv) 2. (i) 3. (iii) 4. (iii) 5. (ii) 6. (iii)
7. (iii) 8. (i) 9. (iii) 10. (ii) 11. (i) 12. (ii)
13. (iv) 14. (ii) 15. (iii) 16. (i)
II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)
17. (i), (ii), (iii) 18. (i), (ii), (iii) 19. (i), (iii), (iv) 20. (i), (iii)
21. (ii), (iii)
III. Short Answer Type
23. (A) 3-Ethyl-5-methylhexane-2,4-diol, (B) 1-Methoxy-3-nitrocyclohexane
25. (i) Hydrogen bonding (ii) Size of alkyl/aryl group.
26. Alcohol is made unfit for drinking by mixing some copper sulphate and pyridine in it. This is called denatured alcohol.
27. CrO3 , pyridine and HCl. (Pyridinium chlorochromate)
28. 2-Chloroethanol, due to –I effect of chlorine atom.
29. CrO3, Pyridine and HCl (Pyridinium chlorochromate)
30. Any strong oxidising agent e.g., acidified KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7.
31. Ortho nitrophenol, [Hint : intramolecular hydrogen bonding in o-nitrophenol and intermolecular hydrogen bonding in p-nitrophenol.]
32. o-Nitrophenol, [Hint : CH3 group is electron releasing]
34. Increasing order of acidity :
o-cresol < phenol < o-nitrophenol
[Hint : In substituted phenols, the presence of electron withdrawing
groups, enhance the acidic strength of phenol whereas, electron releasing
groups decrease the acidic strength of phenol.]
35. Decreasing order of reactivity of sodium metal is :
1° > 2° > 3°
36. [Hint : It gives phenol]
37. [Hint : H2O > ROH > HC ≡≡ CH]
38. See NCERT textbook for Class XII
39. [Hint : Using Grignard reagent]
40. See NCERT textbook for Class XII
41. See NCERT textbook for Class XII
42. See NCERT textbook for Class XII
43. See NCERT textbook for Class XII
44. See NCERT textbook for Class XII
45. An alcohol reacts with conc. HCl and ZnCl2 (Lucas reagent) to give carbocation. More stable is the carbocation, faster is the reaction.
47. Phenol is more easily nitrated than benzene as the presence of —OH group in phenol increases the electron density at ortho and para positions in benzene ring by +R effect. The nitration, being an electrophilic substitution reaction is more facile where the electron density is more.
48. Phenoxide ion is more reactive than phenol towards electrophilic aromatic substitution and hence undergoes electrophilic substitution with carbondioxide which is a weak electrophile.
49. In phenol, C—O bond is less polar due to electron-withdrawing effect of benzene ring whereas in methanol, C—O bond is more polar due to electronreleasing effect of —CH3 group.
50. In tert-butyl halides, elimination is favoured over substitution, so alkene is the only reaction product and ether is not formed.
51. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
52. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
53. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
54. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
55. This is due to the fact that—
(i) In phenol, conjugation of unshared electron pair over oxygen with aromatic ring results in partial double bond character in carbonoxygen bond.
(ii) In phenol, oxygen is attached to a sp2 hybridised carbon atom while in methanol, it is attached to a sp3 hyrbidised carbon atom. The bond formed between oxygen and sp2 hybridised carbon is more stable than that formed between oxygen and sp3 hybridised carbon.
56. Increasing order of acidity is ethanol < water < phenol. The phenoxide ion obtained after the removal of a proton is stabilised by resonance whereas the ethoxide ion obtained after the removal of a proton is destabilised by ‘+I’ effect of —C2H5 group. Therefore phenol is stronger acid than ethanol. On the other hand ethanol is weaker acid than water because electron releasing —C2H5 group in ethanol inreases the electron density on oxygen and hence the polarity of O—H bond in ethanol decreases which results in the decreasing acidic strength. Hence acidic strength increases in the order given above.
IV. Matching Type
57. (i) — (d), (ii) — (c), (iii) — (f), (iv) — (a); (v) — (g), (vi) — (b)
58. (i) — (d), (ii) — (e), (iii) — (b), (iv) — (a)
59. (i)—(e), (ii)—(f), (iii)—(d), (iv)—(c), (v)—(a), (vi)—(b)
60. (i) —(d), (ii) — (a), (iii) — (f), (iv) — (e); (v) — (c), (vi) — (b)
V. Assertion and Reason Type
61. (ii) 62. (i) 63. (iv) 64. (iv) 65. (ii) 66. (iv)
67. (v) 68. (iii) 69. (ii) 70. (iv)
VI. Long Answer Type
71. Consult NCERT textbook for Class XII.
72. Consult NCERT textbook for Class XII.
73. Consult NCERT textbook for Class XII.
74. Consult NCERT textbook for Class XII.